One of the important aspect of software development is maintenance, and it's proven by experience that a software which keeps visibility of its component low is more maintainable than the one who exposes its component more. You won't realize it upfront, but you will miss it badly, while redesigning your application. Since maintaining backward compatibility is must have requirement for many app, you end up patching and repeating same mistakes. You can not do much because lots of other applications are tightly integrated with your class and interfaces. Java has always put encapsulation on priority, provided support of access modifiers from very beginning. It provides three ways to control visibility of any Type e.g. class or interface, by making them public, package-private or private. What happened to protected, can't we use protected with class or interface. No you can't, you can only use two access modifier with types, protected is not a legal modifier for class and interface. Also a top level class (a class whose name is same as of Java source file which contains it) can be either public or package private (without any access modifier), it can not be private. Only a nested class can be private, public or package-private. A public class is accessible to everyone, and it is most visible, try to keep only key interfaces public, never let your implementation go public until you think it's complete and mature. On the other hand private Type is least visible, and only nested class or interface can be private in Java. Since it's least visible, you have full control of this class to alter its behaviour with experiences, new technologies, tools and redesign. A clever midway is package-private visibility, which is also default visibility, there is no such keyword as package-private, instead if you don't provide any access modifier than Java assumes that it package-private, and subsequently make it visible only on same package. If your classes and interfaces are shared only between other class in same package, make them package-private. Since client cannot access them, they are also relative safe to change.
Tuesday, September 2, 2014
Thursday, August 28, 2014
Quicksort algorithm is one of the most used sorting algorithm, especially to sort large list and most of the programming languages, library have implemented it in one or another way. In Java, Arrays.sort() method sorts primitive data types using double pivot Quicksort algorithm, authored by Joshua Bloach and others. This implementation provides better performance for lot of data sets, where traditional quicksort algorithm reduced into quadratic performance. This method also uses MergeSort, another good sorting algorithm, to sort objects. QuickSort implementations are also available in C++ STL library. Have you ever thought why quicksort is so popular? because on average it is one of the fastest sorting algorithm we have. On average quicksort is a O(n log n) algorithm, while it's worst case is O(n^2), which is much better comparing with Bubble Sort or Insertion Sort. It's also one of the popular algorithm interview question, so as a programmer you must know how QuickSort works as well as how to implement Quicksort in Java or any other programming language. One of the most important thing interviewer look in your quicksort implementation is choice of pivot and whether you are sorting in place or not. In "in-place" sorting, actual sorting takes place in same array and no additional space is needed. Due to this reason, quicksort is very efficient in sorting large list of numbers, as no additional memory is required, a very space efficient sorting algorithm. Quicksort is also one of the naturally recursive algorithm and serves a good exercise for Java programmers to master art of recursion.
Tuesday, August 26, 2014
Converting a byte array to String seems easy but what is difficult is, doing it correctly. Many programmers make mistake of ignoring character encoding whenever bytes are converted into a String or char or vice versa. As a programmer, we all know that computer's only understand binary data i.e. 0 and 1. All things we see and use e.g. images, text files, movies, or any other multi-media is stored in form of bytes, but what is more important is process of encoding or decoding bytes to character. Data conversion is an important topic on any programming interview, and because of trickiness of character encoding, this questions is one of the most popular String Interview question on Java Interviews. While reading a String from input source e.g. XML files, HTTP request, network port, or database, you must pay attention on which character encoding (e.g. UTF-8, UTF-16, and ISO 8859-1) they are encoded. If you will not use the same character encoding while converting bytes to String, you would end up with a corrupt String which may contain totally incorrect values. You might have seen ?, square brackets after converting byte to String, those are because of values your current character encoding is not supporting, and just showing some garbage values.